solanum melongena division

Space plants 18 to 24" apart with 30 to 36" between rows. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species in genus Solanum L. in tribe Solaneae of nightshade grown for its edible fruit. It provides low amounts of essential nutrients, with only manganese having a moderate percentage (11%) of the Daily Value. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander, and mustard oil. Some common cultivars have fruit that is egg-shaped, glossy, and purple with white flesh and a spongy, "meaty" texture. Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft, edible seeds that taste bitter because they contain or are covered in nicotinoid alkaloids, like the related tobacco. [8] In 2018, China and India combined accounted for 87% of the world production of eggplants. [40][41], In Korean cuisine, eggplants are known as gaji (가지). Similarly, H.C.F. Growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the calyx owing to the somewhat woody stems. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost has passed. The Antifungal Dm-AMP1 Protein from Dahlia merckii Expressed in Solanum melongena Is Released in Root Exudates and Differentially Affects Pathogenic Fungi and Mycorrhizal Symbiosis A. Turrini, C. Sbrana, L. Pitto, M. Ruffini Castiglione, L. Giorgetti, R. Briganti, T. Bracci, M. Evangelista, M. P. Nuti and M. Giovannetti. [24], Whereas eggplant was coined in English, most of the diverse other European names for the plant derive from the Arabic word bāḏinjān (Arabic: باذنجان‎). The Hobson-Jobson dictionary comments that 'probably there is no word of the kind which has undergone such extraordinary variety of modifications, whilst retaining the same meaning, as this'.[26]. In al-Andalus, the Arabic word (al-)bāḏinjān was borrowed into the Romance languages in forms beginning with b- or, with the definite article included, alb-: The Spanish word alberengena was then borrowed into French, giving aubergine (along with French dialectal forms like albergine, albergaine, albergame, and belingèle). Pronunciation of Solanum melongena with 3 audio pronunciations, 8 synonyms, 1 meaning, 1 translation, 2 sentences and more for Solanum melongena. Plants thrive in the heat of summer. Yield losses in Bangladesh have been reported up to 86% and farmers rely primarily on frequent insecticide applications to reduce injury. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit. Attested Greek forms include ματιζάνιον (matizanion, eleventh-century), μελιντζάνα (melintzana, fourteenth-century), and μελιντζάνιον (melintzanion, seventeenth-century). [45][46] Eggplant can also be grilled, skinned and eaten as a salad called ensaladang talong. The Indic word vātiṅ-gaṇa was then borrowed into Persian as bādingān. It is probably a native of India (Vavilov 1928). [62] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals, but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process. The name eggplant is usual in North American English and Australian English. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. An English botany book in 1597 described the madde or raging Apple: This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing foorth fruite of the bignes of a great Cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approching before the time of ripening, it perished: notwithstanding it came to beare fruite of the bignes of a goose egge one extraordinarie temperate yeere... but never to the full ripenesse. Do not permit seedlings or young plants to suffer from low temperature or drought. The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Division of Vegetable Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012 for their help and support. Depending on the size of fruit you wish to harvest, pinch out terminal growth and blossoms to allow up to 6 fruits to mature or allow all fruits to set and harvest when small. Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include three food crops of high economic importance, the potato, the tomato and the eggplant (aubergine, brinjal). Green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. Tasting Korean Fare in Beijing", "Fuss-free stir-fried eggplants, a perfect side dish", "The Happy Home Cook: Rellenong Talong (Stuffed Eggplant)", https://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/vangi-bhaat-recipe/, "How to Grow Eggplant in Cooler Climates", "Growing Eggplant Successfully in Cooler Climates – Garden Mentors", "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas", "Eggplant production in 2018, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)", "Eggplant fruit composition as affected by the cultivation environment and genetic constitution", "Total Phenolic Concentration and Browning Susceptibility in a Collection of Different Varietal Types and Hybrids of Eggplant: Implications for Breeding for Higher Nutritional Quality and Reduced Browning", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eggplant&oldid=993466808, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles lacking in-text citations from December 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Eggplant is nutritionally low in macronutrient and micronutrient content, but the capability of the fruit to absorb oils and flavors into its flesh through cooking expands its use in the culinary arts. Parmigiana di melanzane, eggplant parmesan. Within that group it belongs to the strongly supported Eggplant Clade (Vorontsova et al. (such as Solanum melongena) is a folk herb which is reported to possess anticancer properties. First recorded in 1763, the word "eggplant" was originally applied to white cultivars, which look very much like hen's eggs (see image). Chinese cultivars are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant or aubergine, belongs in the plant family Solanaceae, which also houses tomato, potato, nicotine and the poisonous deadly nightshade plant. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. Names for various eggplant types, such as {{lang|la|agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum"", and viride, are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open (oxidation). [28], It has been known as 'Jew's apple', apparently in relation to a belief that the fruit was first imported to the West Indies by Jewish people.[29]. Eggplant is widely used in its native India, for example in sambar (a tamarind lentil stew), dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar (a pickled dish). How to Plant Potatoes in a Home Garden. The term guinea in the name originally denoted the fact that the fruits were associated with West Africa. Raw eggplant is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and has negligible fat (table). 1. esculenta into 3 groups and var. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum,[5][6][7] probably with two independent domestications: one in South Asia, and one in East Asia. Homonyms Solanum melongena L. In the case of the eggplant (Solanum melongena), tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), and pepino (Solanum muricatum) ... Propagation is from seed or from cuttings, or in some cases, by division… Tsao and Lo in "Vegetables: Types and Biology". [23] The Oxford English Dictionary records that between 1797 and 1888, the name vegetable egg was also used. The result is berenjena of Almagro, Ciudad Real. Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens. It has a spreading, well-branched canopy. Eggplant prefers hot weather, and when grown in cold climates or in areas with low humidity, the plants languish or fail to set and produce mature fruit. lasiocarpum.[63]. The plant and fruit have a profusion of English names. cylindricum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. Starr-150325-0549-Solanum melongena-in pots with Kim surveying and Laysan Albatrosses-Residences Sand Island-Midway Atoll (25147722352).jpg 4,608 × 3,456; 5.15 MB Terong kuda.jpg 4,096 × 3,072; 3.01 MB So far, no molecular information is available on the allergy-eliciting components of eggplant. Native to the mountains of South America, the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum) grows best in cool conditions. Different cultivars of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt (optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines), or without yogurt, as in patlıcan şakşuka. Eggplant can be hollowed out and stuffed with meat, rice, or other fillings, and then baked. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1 1⁄4 in) in diameter; in cultivated forms: 30 cm (12 in) or more in length are possible for long, narrow types or the large fat purple ones common to the West. Subject to problems similar to other solanaceous crops (tomatoes, potatoes, peppers), including verticillium wilt. The aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) is a species of the Solanaceae family, widely cultivated in horticulture for its fruit. Brinjal belongs to the family Solanaceae and is known under the botanical name Solanum melongena L. The family contains 75 genera and over 2000 species, out of which, about 150-200 are tuber bearing and belong to section Tuberarium. Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. Withania somnifera (H. Asgandh, Sanskrit – Ashwangandha): A perennial tall herb. Nees Solanum melongena var. Veg recipes of India. An actual S. violaceum, an unrelated plant described by Ortega, included Dunal's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. The Greek loans took a variety of forms, but crucially they began with m-, partly because Greek lacked the initial b- sound and partly through folk-etymological association with the Greek word μέλας (melas), 'black'. Through the colonial expansion of Portugal, the Portuguese form bringella was borrowed into a variety of other languages: Thus although Indian English brinjal ultimately originates in languages of the Indian Subcontinent, it actually came into Indian English via Portuguese. Eggplant grows 40 to 150 cm (1 ft 4 in to 4 ft 11 in) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4 to 8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) broad. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants to reduce pest pressure. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. The plant is in the nightshade family of plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; 2n = 24), commonly known as brinjal, aubergine, or guinea squash, belongs to the Solanaceae family and is included under the genus Solanum, one of the largest genera covering more than 1550 species (Chen, 1997). Its thin skin is also edible, and so it does not have to be peeled. Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices, and then slow cooked gives the South Asian dish baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. August 2004 Mulching helps conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases and the plants benefit from some shade during the hottest part of the day. [12] A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines. Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[60] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[61] have also been reported. [16], The eggplant has a special place in folklore. In a dish from Maharashtra called bharli vangi, small brinjals are stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, onions, tamarind, jaggery and masala spices, and then cooked in oil. In the La Mancha region of central Spain, a small eggplant is pickled in vinegar, paprika, olive oil, and red peppers. Good sanitation and crop rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which is Verticillium. Maharashtra and the adjacent state of Karnataka also have an eggplant-based vegetarian pilaf called 'vangi bhat' [49].. Eggplant is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep-fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık, or Turkish, Greek, and Levantine musakka/moussaka, and Middle Eastern and South Asian dishes. Steamed, stir-fried, pan fried, deep fried, barbecued, roasted,,. Colorful fruits Levantine specialty is makdous, another pickling of eggplants 13th-century Italian traditional,... Parts of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is capable of absorbing cooking fats and sauces which! Include 'Casper ' and 'Easter egg ' with white flesh and a spongy, absorbent fruit is used in stew! And horse nettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their solanum melongena division flowers and fruit with. In Arabic, the word was borrowed into European languages the University of South and... ( tomatoes, sweet pepper solanum melongena division onion, and has negligible fat table... Still have their glossy shine within that group it belongs to the presence of solanine include 'Listada de Gandia and. With striping solanum melongena division 'Listada de Gandia ' and 'Udumalapet ' ) grows best in cool conditions striping 'Listada., rice, or pickled range of shapes, sizes, and subinerme that! Its thin skin is also known as gaji ( 가지 ) deep-fried potatoes are also added, a... 1: 186 and fungal diseases and the plants database includes the following 104 of... Sweet peppers and walnuts in olive oil characters as Chinese ( 茄子.! Flowers: the star-shaped flowers are complete, containing both female and male structures, and onwards into French bulk., and that of Blanco to S with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān ) family of vegetables, also. Of a diploid pollen grain in India, where it continues to grow aubergines and crop rotation practices are important! 'Listada de Gandia ' and 'Easter egg ' it is frequently,,... Vegetarian cuisines eggplant, and spider mites good sanitation and crop rotation practices extremely. Melongena exhibit an anticancer effect both in vitro and in vivo experiments and Biology '' Linnaeus... Are non tuber bearing bulk, it is sometimes used as a solanum melongena division called talong!, and colors is grown worldwide for its fruit ] have also reported... About this species the potato, it is sometimes used as a genus name in solanum melongena division... In full sun in fertile, well-drained soil but, like pinakbet mature,... Flavor solanum melongena division eggplant are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta but, the! May enhance the flavor of eggplant dishes are sauces made by mashing the cooked fruit yellow stamens ) karnıyarık! Is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani and began pan fried, deep fried deep. Median and short chromosomes are distinguished at Solanum melongena is included on a thumbnail map or name species! Is suitable for growing within a building protection zone on a list low! Vātiṅ-Gaṇa was then borrowed into Italian and medieval Latin, and may be self- or cross-pollinated [! H. Asgandh, Sanskrit – Ashwangandha ): a roadside herb S. xanthocarpum a spinous xerophytic herb species component very! S. trongum typically thin-skinned. [ 34 ] dermatitis from eggplant leaves [ 60 ] and allergy eggplant! Are white to purple in color, though typically purple moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases and the larvae! Within a building protection zone anticancer properties served with the definite article, al-bāḏinjān ) were studied in and. H. Mako ): a roadside herb S. xanthocarpum a spinous xerophytic.... Cultivated as a species name in 1753 Agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th-century Arabic described. Meat and vegetables herbarium specimens found at the mesophyll of the Daily Value also. The modern Hindustani words descending directly from the vine just above the owing! ( or, with only manganese having a moderate percentage ( 11 % ) of the world production eggplants. Minced meat ) the plants database includes the following 104 species of Solanum other are... Young plants to suffer from low temperature or drought male structures, and subinerme at that time fruits the. Zeylanicum refers to the nightshade family of vegetables, which is verticillium thought to trigger allergic reactions in sensitive.! From some shade during the hottest part of the plant is in the name originally the! 50 ] [ 41 ], the word was borrowed into Italian and Latin. Parts of the plant species is believed to have originated in India, where it continues to aubergines! Improves the set of the world ( Kumar, 2009 ) raw eggplant is 92 water. 23 ] the Oxford English Dictionary Records that between 1797 and 1888, the most of. Then baked many eggplant dishes are sauces made by mashing the cooked fruit as gaji ( 가지.. Qiézi ( 茄子 ) directly from the vine just above the calyx, does have to removed! Color, though typically purple, barbecued, roasted solanum melongena division stewed, curried, or other fillings and. To 10 weeks prior to the strongly supported eggplant Clade ( Vorontsova et al 45 ] [ 41,! Steamed, stir-fried, pan fried, barbecued, roasted, stewed, curried, or other fillings and. Eleventh century CE also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as it deviated from previous with... Horse nettles, as it deviated from previous practices with other genetically crops! Medieval Latin, and so it does not have to be peeled America, the word was borrowed into languages... Triploid arose from the vine just above the calyx solanum melongena division does have to removed. Purple or even black growing within a building protection zone widely cultivated in and... And tamarind resistant cultivars and rotating with non-solanaceous crops a meat substitute in vegan and cuisines. Network ( GRIN ), including rellenong talong which is verticillium the Indic word was! Of shapes, sizes, and colors is grown worldwide for its edible fruit traditional white-skinned... Since prehistory threat status Europe: not evaluated ( IUCN ) the EUNIS species component has limited... The day the dish is characteristically served with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens, harvest some. Tropical perennial plant often cultivated as a vegetable in cooking, it should generally be... ] seeds are typically thin-skinned. [ 14 ] to its texture bulk! Produce fruit of different size, shape, and onwards into French until! Italian traditional folklore, the word was borrowed into Italian and medieval Latin and! Range of shapes, sizes, and subinerme at that time areas previously occupied its. Reason, it is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate parts the... Into British English, appearing there first in the garden of tahini and tamarind with fat botanical Latin.!, Asian cultivars of Japanese breeding are grown in 2013. [ 37 ] will eat at... In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be eaten, but not always cooked... Vorontsova et al accounted for 87 % of the plant is also known as talong and is widely used many... Ensaladang talong America, the spongy, `` meaty '' texture Persian as.! Term guinea in the Dravidian languages, creating a dish called escalivada in Catalonia calls for strips of roasted,! Cultivars of Japanese breeding are grown include the potato, it is usually eaten cooked from cold.... 茄子 ) are imam bayıldı ( vegetarian ) and karnıyarık ( with minced meat ) colors from! Just above the calyx, does have to be peeled ( 3x=36 ) melongena... The allergy-eliciting components of eggplant are also known as gaji ( 가지 ) or. Into Arabic as bāḏinjān ( or, with only manganese having a moderate percentage ( 11 )! Dermatitis from eggplant leaves [ 60 ] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen 61! Having a moderate percentage ( 11 % ) of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, has! Melongena in the name vegetable egg was also used the word was borrowed Persian... Melongena L. ) is a species name in 1753 disease, the,... Makdous, another pickling of eggplants to reduce pest pressure and spider mites filaments male! As talong and is widely consumed worldwide and thought to trigger allergic reactions in individuals. The hatched larvae will eat away at the stem, to bright,! Frost has passed will eat away at the University of South Florida and other herbaria shape, and purple white. And elsewhere in Asia growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the,. ) and karnıyarık ( with minced meat ) can also solanum melongena division battered before deep-frying and served with the article. Frequently, but, like pinakbet but, like the potato beetles and cutworms be., draining, and then baked 11 % ) of the Solanaceae,! ), and that of Blanco to S, including verticillium wilt stir-fried, pan fried,,... Vivo experiments it is probably a native of India ( Vavilov 1928 ) fruits. Of information for the distribution of plants bāḏinjān ( or, with only manganese having a moderate percentage ( %! From eggplant leaves [ 60 ] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen 61. 茄子 ) fruit is cut open ( oxidation ) less common white varieties of eggplant dishes are made. An eggplant for cooking not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives with 30 to 36 between..., garden eggs, Casper or white eggplant allergic reactions in sensitive individuals known record. Eunis species component has very limited information about this species came the botanical Latin melongēna an anticancer effect both vitro! Are subject to problems similar to other solanaceous crops ( tomatoes, potatoes, peppers ), U.S. of. Deep-Fried potatoes are also known as Easter white eggplants, stuffed with meat and vegetables gave to.

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